Forward Freight Agreement Trading

Forward Freight Agreement Trading: An Introduction

Forward Freight Agreement (FFA) trading is a type of financial hedging that allows companies to manage risk associated with shipping goods by sea. FFA traders buy or sell contracts that represent the future price of ocean freight rates for a specific period of time. This article will provide an overview of FFA trading and how it works.

What are Forward Freight Agreements?

Forward Freight Agreements (FFAs) are contracts that allow shipping companies to buy or sell the future delivery of goods at a fixed price. Essentially, FFAs are financial derivatives used to manage the risk associated with shipping. These contracts are usually traded on the Over-the-Counter (OTC) market, which means that they are not traded on public stock exchanges like traditional stocks.

How do FFAs work?

FFA contracts are based on a standardized rate index, such as the Baltic Exchange`s Baltic Dry Index (BDI). The BDI is an index that represents the global shipping prices of raw materials like coal, iron ore, and grain. Traders can buy and sell FFA contracts, which allow them to take a position on whether they think future shipping prices will go up or down.

For example, a shipping company may agree to sell a cargo of iron ore for delivery in six months` time. They could use an FFA contract to lock in the price of shipping at the current rate, ensuring that they will not be affected by any price fluctuations in the shipping market. On the other hand, a trader may buy an FFA contract if they believe that shipping prices will rise in the future. If they are correct, they can sell the contract at a profit.

Benefits of FFA Trading

FFA trading has many benefits for shipping companies and traders. Firstly, it allows companies to manage their risk by locking in shipping prices for future deliveries. This can be particularly useful for companies that operate on tight margins. Secondly, FFA trading allows traders to make speculative bets on future shipping prices. This means that they can profit from price movements in the market without having to physically transport any goods.

In addition, FFA trading can be used as a tool to hedge against currency risk. Shipping prices are often quoted in US dollars, so any fluctuation in the exchange rate can have a big impact on the cost of shipping. By using FFA contracts, companies can lock in the price of shipping in a certain currency, reducing their exposure to currency risk.


Forward Freight Agreement trading is an important financial tool for companies that transport goods by sea. By using FFA contracts, shipping companies and traders can manage their risk, speculate on future shipping prices, and hedge against currency risk. While FFA trading may seem complex, it is an essential component of the global shipping industry and should be considered by any company that operates in this space.